Selasa, 20 April 2010

cort 6 action

In this set of ten lessons the structure takes the form of a framework.

The purpose of the framework is to divide the total thinking process into definite stages, each of which can be tackled in turn.

At each stage in the overall framework there is a definite thinking task to be carried out and a definite aim for the thinking.

This simplifies thinking by removing the complexity and confusion.

Without a framework everything tends to crowd in at once on the thinker, who tends to be overwhelmed by all the aspects of the situation.

The result is that the thinker takes the easiest way out and uses a slogan, cliché or prejudice instead of thinking.

The stages suggested in the framework are very simple and straightforward.

At each stage the thinker concentrates on carrying out the task defined by that stage.

To make the stages of the framework memorable each of them has been given an initial letter.

These letters have been specially chosen so that they add up to a word that is catchy enough to be memorable.

This is simply a mnemonic device.

The total framework is called TEC-PISCO which stands for Target-Expand-Contract-Purpose-Input-Solutions-Choice-Operations.

The choice of letters has to some extent been dictated by the need for them to add up to a pronounceable word. For example "decision" might have been more appropriate than "choice."

1: T
The first thing in thinking. Directing attention to the specific matter that is to be the subject of the thinking. The importance of picking out the "thinking target" in as definite and focused a manner as possible49
Having picked out the target the next step is to expand upon it: in depth, in breadth, in seeking alternatives. This is the opening-up phase of thinking. "Say as much as you can about...".50
The third step is to narrow down the expended thinking to something more tangible and more usable: main points, a summary, a conclusion, a choice or selection.51
4: T E C
The use of the three preceding tools in one sequence. Practice in defining the target, exploring the subject and narrowing down to a usable outcome.52
Being clear about the exact purpose of thinking. With what does one want to end up: a decision, a problem solution, an action plan or an opinion? The general purpose of the thinking and also the specific objective.53
The situation, the scene, the setting, thwe information available, the factors and people to be considered, the total input that goes into thinking.54
Alternative solutions including the most obvious, the traditional, and the new. Methods for generating solutions and filling gaps.55
The decision process. Choosing between the alternative solutions. Priorities and the criteria for choice. Consequences and review of the decision.56
Operation, Implementation the carrying through the results of the thinking. Setting up the specific action steps that will bring about the desired result. Putting the thinking into effect.37
Using the whole PISCO sequence (Purpose-Input-Solutions-Choice-Operation). Consolidation of the total TEC-PISCO framework in which the first three tools (TEC) are used to define and elaborate each of the five stages of the PISCO procedure.

cort 5 information and feeling

Information and feeling underlie all thinking.

Thinking depends on information and is strongly influenced by feeling.

CoRT 5 deals with information processes, such as questions, clues, guessing, belief, ready-made opinions and the misuses of information.

It also deals with emotions and values.

The aim of CoRT 5 is to encourage a definite awareness of these influences - not to change them.

The students are also trained to recognise what information they have, what they still require and how to use information.

The techniques used in each lesson are designed to develop detachment and observation.

1: FI & FO
Analysis of information and appraisal of its completeness. What desirable information is missing?58
2: FQ & SQ
Skilled use of questions. Purpose and direction of questions. Open-ended and closed types.59
3: CS &CC
Clues, deduction, implication. Maximum extrapolation of given information. Putting things together.60
4: CO & FCo
False jumps, false conclusions and other incorrect uses of information.61
5: SG & BG
The use of guessing when information is incomplete. Good guesses and bad guesses.62
6: BP & BO
Credibility. How we value our information. Proof, certainty, belief, consensus, authority, media, experience, anecdote, etc63
7: RM-H & RM-S
Usual substitutes for personal thinking- stereotypes, cliches, prejudices, standard opinions, etc.64
8: EM & EG
The way emotions are involved in thinking. Usual emotions and ego-emotions (having to be right, trying to be funny, face-saving, etc.).65
9: VH & VL
Values determine thinking and acceptability of the result. Appreciation of the values involved rather than trying to change them.66
10: SF & CF
What does it boil down to? What is the situation? What is the thinking about?

cort 4 creativity

It is too often assumed that creative ideas come only from inspiration and that there is nothing else that can be done about it.

CoRT 4 covers the basic creative techniques, procedures and attitudes.

Creativity is treated as a normal part of thinking, involving processes that can be learned, practiced and applied in a deliberate manner.

Some of the processes are concerned with the escape from imprisoning ideas.

Others are concerned with the provocation of new ideas.

Problem definition is an important part of creativity.

So is the evaluation of suggested solutions.

1: YES, NO & PO
"Po," a device for showing that an idea is being used creatively without any judgment or immediate evaluation.39
The use of ideas not for their own sake but because of other ideas they may lead to.40
The input of unrelated spurious ideas into a situation may change the situation.41
The testing of the ' uniqueness" of concepts may lead to other ways of doing things.42
In most situations there is a dominant idea. In order to be creative one must find and escape from it.43
An effort to define a problem exactly may make it easier to solve.44
The assessment of faults and their removal from an idea.45
By examining the attributes of seemingly unrelated items new items may be created either by fusion or by combination.46
An awareness of requirements may influence the creation of ideas.47
Does an idea fulfill the requirements; what are its advantages and disadvantages?

cort 3 interaction

CoRT 3 deals with two-people situations.

The thinker is no longer looking directly at the subject matter but at someone elses thinking.

The area is that of argument, debate, conflict, opinion, etc.

The lessons provide ways of assessing evidence.

They also examine the different strategies used to prove a point and the two main classes of error.

Two practical procedures for helping to solve conflicts are offered in

"Examine Both Sides (EBS)" and in the mapping operation called

"Agreement, Disagreement, Irrelevance (ADI)."

The aim of CoRT 3 is to encourage pupils to listen to what is being said and to assess its value.

They are also encouraged to adopt a constructive approach to resolving arguments.

1: EBS
Deliberate practice in examining both sides of an argument instead of blindly supporting one side.79
The types of evidence put forward in an argument. Distinguishing between fact and opinion.80
Practice in the assessment of the value of evidence. Not all evidence is of equal value.82
Examining evidence. Does it stand on its own, is it dependent on other evidence which in turn depends on something else.83
5: ADI
Mapping out these areas to increase areas of agreement and reduce areas of disagreement.81
Two of the main ways of being right. (1) Examining the idea itself, its implications and effects. (2) Referring to facts, authority, feelings.84
The other two ways of being right. ( 1 ) Use of names, labels, classifications. (2)Judgment, including the use of value words.85
Exaggeration - false generalizations, taking things to extremes. Basing conclusions on only part of the situation.86
The remaining two ways of being wrong: mistake and prejudice.77
What has been achieved at the end of an argument? Seven possible levels of achievement short of complete agreement.

cort 2 organization

The first five lessons in CoRT 2 deal with five common thinking operations.

Each of these is made the subject of deliberate attention, so that students can use them in an organised manner: asking specific questions and looking for specific answers.

The next five lessons deal with the overall organisation of thinking so that it can be used in a deliberate and productive manner.

The intention is to treat thinking as an organised operation rather than a discursive ramble in which one thing leads to another.

Some of the lessons in the second half refer to processes learned in CoRT 1 (BREADTH) but the lessons can still be used even if CoRT 1 has not been taught, by omitting references to it.

The deliberate effort to identify a situation in order to make it easier to understand or to deal with.11
Two types of analysis. Deliberate dividing up of a situation in order to think about it more effectively.12
Using comparison in order to understand a situation. Examining points of similarity and difference in offered comparisons.13
The deliberate effort to find something that fulfills the requirements. Selecting from different possibilities.14
The deliberate effort to find alternative ways of looking at things.18
The practical business of starting to think about something. What is the first thing to do?19
The practical business of organising the way a situation is to be tackled.17
Looking at different aspects of a situation, especially being clear as to what aspect is under consideration at the moment.16
What has been achieved so far? Drawing together and being clear about what has been done and what has been left out.15
Arriving at a definite conclusion, even if that declares that no definite conclusion is possible.


CoRT 1: Breath - broadens perception by demonstrating a number of different directions thinking can follow.

Type of Lesson Comments
1 PMI Plus, Minus, Interesting
Designed to ensure that decision or commitment takes place after both sides of the matter have been considered and not before. The I of PMI can be used as a tool in subsequent lessons:
2 CAF Consider all options
This operation is essentially related to action, decision, planning, judgment and coming to a conclusion.
3 RULES Provides an opportunity for practicing the two previous lessons: PMI and CAF
An existing or proposed rule is an opportunity for practicing PMI. The factors involved in making a rule provide practice in CAF
4 C & S Consequence and Sequel
Crystallisation of the process of looking ahead to see the consequences of some action plan decision rule invention etc, Attention is focused directly on the future. Immediate, short medium and long-term consequences are examined by different groups.
5 AGO Aims Goals Objectives
This lesson provides a focus on the intentions behind actions on the idea of purpose. In some situations, it is more appropriate to use aims rather than goals of objectives. The key here is to focus on purpose rather than reaction.
6 PLANNING The idea is to use planning as a thinking situation which brings together
Objectives (AGO), consequences (C&S), the factors involved (CAF) and the treatment of ideas (PMI)
7 FIP First Important Priorities

FIP is a judgement situation which requires no absolute answers. It is person, and/or situation specific. It is a crystallisation of the process of picking out the most important ideas, factors, objectives, concequences, etc. per the requirements of the specific situation.

8 APC Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices
APC is an attempt to focus on exploring all the alternatives, choices, of possibilities - beyond the obvious ones

9 DECISIONS This lesson provides an opportunity to bring together the last two lessons in particular, FIP and APC: and also the other lessons in a more general way

In making decisions your have to:

Consider all the factors

Be clear about aims/objectives

Assess prioriries

Look at consequences

Discover alternative courses of action

You ccan also do a PMI on the decision once made

10 OPV Other People's View
This considers the process of looking at other peoples viewpoints so that the process can be used consciously and deliberately to escape from one's own point of view.

Full details of how to run each type of lesson are given in the Teacher's Notes.

Comments are given on using the CoRT Thinking Lessons with groups of different ages and abilities e.g Primary, Secondary and Remedial Groups. Suggestions are also given on generation and using test materials

Selasa, 30 Mac 2010


Edward de Bono ( 1976 )
- Kemahiran berfikir ini membolehkan manusia melihat pelbagai perspektif untuk menyelesaikan masalah dalam sesuatu situasi tertentu.
Dewey ( 1910 ) menegaskan :
- Pemikiran yang dihasilkan adalah kerana terdapat situasi keraguan atau masalah tertimbul. Pemikiran merupakan aktiviti psikologikal dalam sesuatu proses yang dialami untuk digunakan menyelesaikan masalah dalam situasi yang dihadapi.

Menurut pandangan Islam, berfikir ialah fungsi akal yang memerhatikan tenaga supaya otak manusia dapat bekerja dan beroperasi. Tenaga ini diperolehi melalui tafakur.
Berdasarkan pandangan dan definisi yang dihuraikan Konsep Pemikiran bolehlah dirumus sebagai :“ Pemikiran ialah satu proses yang menggunakan minda untuk mencari makna dan penyelesaian terhadap sesuatu keraguan atau masalah yang tertimbul dengan menggunakan pelbagai cara iaitu membuat pertimbangan dan keputusan serta refleksi yang logikal dan munasabah terhadap proses yang dialami.